Several quantitative and qualitative studies highlight the fact that the burden of corruption in the health sector impacts the poor most heavily, given their limited access to resources. Poor women, for example, may not get critical health care services simply because they are unable to pay informal fees: a recent study by Amnesty International on maternal health in Burkina Faso found that one of the primary causes of the deaths of thousands of pregnant women annually (including during childbirth) is due to corruption by health professionals. Further evidence from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) shows that corruption has a significant, negative effect on health indicators such as infant and child mortality, even after adjusting for income, female education, health spending, and level of urbanization. Corruption lowers the immunization rate of children and discourages the use of public health clinics. In many countries, its pervasiveness impedes improvement in health outcomes and therefore is a serious barrier to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Fuente: Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD)